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what I want to formally welcome you to my dissertation proposal this octavo said very very happy to be here today at some University over the last few years – with four different concussions in the last two years so this is an awesome day and I wouldn’t be here without my committee and especially when two chairs dr. Loe you’ve been with me since day one and you’ve invested a lot in me and thank you so much for everything we’ve done in your believe them a big reason why I’m here today dr. Georgiou thank you so much for kicking in and all the confidence that you instill in game of patience and time and I really appreciate our relationship dr. Rosser thank you for your service on my committee and your impact and for always being so student-centered and now predominantly have about blessing and working with you in other capacities very fortunate toward moving this study Kapil thank you for your input for your service I’m going to go through starting with the background and then touching on my literature review and then this deficit theoretical and conceptual frameworks used for this study the high research question the design and data analysis and instrument but first I want to start with a little story when I was recruited to play softball in college I was recruited as a pincher and I ultimately ended up choosing UNLV and during the fall semester my coach told me I was looking to be more of a third or fourth Stearn pitcher and she wanted me to focus on my hitting in my own field well the problem was I didn’t really have much experience with hitting her outfield however I need a choice and I decided to be open to what could happen and I dedicated myself to the techniques and my first semester I was honored to earn first-team all-american honors as a hitter and outfielder and I helped my team to postseason and I ended up having a nice career here but I never pitched one inning and I think that this isn’t possible if not for a certain mindset certain set of internal characteristics and this is just one example in the athletic setting I was also curious as to why some of my teammates were high performers and why some of them didn’t seem to be reaching their potential and even though I would have been considered a high performer I still feel like I could have been even better if I would have had the right tools I finished my career and interlayer I start as a practitioner in athletics and I’m an academic advisor for four different teams and I coordinate a life skills program for over 430 student athletes this is a program that the attitude of light asks every institution to facilitate last year I actually got to teach the seminars and I taught on mental skills development and athletic and academic performance personal development leadership legacy and while I received positive feedback from the student-athletes on my evaluations I don’t really know if it was actually helping them during their higher education careers and through the lens of this particular study I don’t know how they do their academic and athletic abilities I don’t know how invested they are in their own personal development and I also don’t know about their experiences on campus and their behaviors this is a little bit as to why I’m passionate about this topic now from a macro perspective college athletics has continued to evolve tremendously and we’ve seen this through various avenues so academically the NC double-a has imposed the academic progress rate which tracks with tension and eligibility of student athletes which keeps the coach accountable and helps them promote potentially an academic culture within their team there are also been increases in athletics standards we’ve seen conferences align based on athletic powers and resources we’ve seen this tremendous infrastructure and resources committed to student athletes to help them excel at a higher level so with these increased standards come increase pressures and it starts from the top down starts with the institutional president and the athletic director who are expected to graduate student athletes and bring in revenue at the institutional level then the next line you have your coaches who feel tremendous pressure to create and put putting teams together on the field and also graduated student athletes academic support staff or in the day-to-day trenches helping student athletes progress and move forward and then at the very bottom ultimately you have the student athlete and that’s what this study is really about is the student athlete and the pressures to perform and excel at a high level now another thing that we need as far as my study my second rationale is that it’s important to examine internal factors relative to performance and the literature is rich with some examples and these are just a few of external factors that are said to be associated with higher levels of success or lower levels of success what I’m proposing is that we start to really examine internal factors among the student athlete because this is what matters this is what can be shifted and developed among students during their careers to potentially impact outcomes whereas external factors are really beyond their control and pre-college factors are what they enter higher education with my third rationale is that academic and athletic performance need to be studied together the studies look at academic performance or athletic performance student athletes and this fails to see the student athlete and their full role and the intricacies of their role on campus as both a student and an athlete finally academic performance is really well captured as far as how we measure it athletic performance on the other hand is still a little bit ambiguous and so this particular instrument that will be within my dissertation will contribute to the literature by creating a inclusive metric as far as how we understand and evaluate student athlete athletics performance additionally student athlete success is a term that the literature uses very widely however very few studies actually differentiate between different levels of performance that’s another element of my site it’s not enough in my mind to just graduate with the minimum requirements or to get through your four years playing going back full circle to where I started it the pressures that are imposed to be great and performance matters and so looking at internal factors to understand differences between high performers and those who still aren’t reaching their potential my literature review is organized in this fashion I’m going to start with how we measure academic performance and then talk about factors that are influenced or contribute to performance I’ll be the same without letting performance and then I’ll get into the theoretical and conceptual frameworks used as a lens for this study academic performances mentioned is most commonly captured through graduation rates and specifically the academic progress rate the issue of this is that it’s an outcome and it doesn’t paint the picture of what’s happening during a student athletes career there are other evaluations throughout literature such as measuring as student athletes identity or that level motivation and associating that with performance and then some studies use GPA as a single indicator to capture performance in fact this is one of the most commonly used factors aside from graduation I organized the different factors that contribute to or influence performance under these three themes pre-college factors what students enter higher education with such as GPA is well studied and GPA is a common predictor of student athlete performance during their first year external factors outside of student athlete control our very robust and one example is group membership a student athlete automatically becomes a part of a group when they’re in higher education and some student athletes particularly males perform better when primed with the terminology scholar baller versus female student-athletes who tend to perform at lower levels winter find with that same terminology and then looking at internal factors that I perceive as controllable by the individual these psychological traits and characteristics of long student athletes motivation is one factor that’s looked at for example internalized academic motivation can increase when students recognize the feedback on exams or assignments non-cognitive factors have also been examined such as how community service and a positive sense of self are found among more successful academic student athletes now a letter performance is mentioned as not as well captured some studies use a evaluation measure that resembles performance so confidence levels of student-athletes some studies use sports specific statistics to quantify athletic performance like goal score or assists and in other studies use individual items such as questions about students reaching their potential or athletic awards or postseason competition try to quantify performance I’ve used the same organizational framework to capture the different factors among different levels of performers pre-college characteristics for example high school size can be predictive of starting status during the freshman year external factors such as socialization student athletes for example who think they have more to gain from investing in their athletic endeavors will commit themselves there and we will see greater performance those who enjoy being celebrated and those who enjoy being in the limelight will tend to devote their attention to athletic performance internal factors have also been examined sports specific traits such as ability to cope with adversity is a main factor found among higher levels of performance and then personal qualities such as neuroticism and conscientiousness which are two of the big five personality factors found to be among more successful student athletes really I didn’t know they’re dropping like that are all incredibly because great I’m sorry I have a despite I thought some of that and I just that’s great very good the issue that we’re seeing is that there’s a lot of attention devoted to external factors and pre-college characteristics so leading is my purpose purpose of the study is to examine differences and internal factors among the vision one with student-athletes levels of academic performance and athletic performance I’m going to get into my frameworks at this point and the first one is a theoretical framework by dr. Carol Dweck called Munson and dr. Watkins established that we have one of two mindsets we have a growth mindset which is a belief that our abilities are malleable and can be developed and a fixed mindset where you tend to gravitate towards low effort successes and attempt to validate your abilities there are many positive aspects of having a growth mindset particularly in the academic realm and in the k-12 setting which is where doctors works primarily focuses for research mindset is also an established training model and that you can move students from a fixed mindset to a growth mindset and those who tend to gravitate towards a growth mindset you can solidify those beliefs through this training that dr. Dweck established in the k-12 setting now the great thing about mindset is that it’s not domain-specific so you can have an growth mindset towards your academic abilities but a fixed mindset for example towards your personality traits and the literature has demonstrated many positive aspects of having a growth mindset including increased self-advocacy and performance in physical activities which is why in addition to look at an academic mindset it’s important to look at athletic mindset as well and this particular framework has not been used with this population the second theoretical framework is personal growth initiative this is established by dr. Frobisher and this is the active and intentional engagement and pursuit of your growth and development and you this comes with a lot of positive elements as well so having higher levels of personal growth initiative has led to some of these particular benefits like mindset an intentional growth training program has been established and tested with college students to help them move from lower levels of personal growth initiative to higher levels of personal growth initiative this particular construct like mine settings also not been used with this population and the third conceptual framework is student-athlete experiences now student out that experiences is well studied in literature there’s a tremendous amount of research devoted to capturing the experiences of suit athletes you have the same participants who are describing how their experiences leads to either positive gains or negative outcomes and these are some examples of what what is reported from here constant his colleagues created the student athlete experience inventory to try to quantify and student athlete experiences on campus including their academic social and everyday experiences higher numbers of experiences have led to greater academic and practical gains so in summary there’s three frameworks that are of the internal factors category a psychological framework of developmental framework and behavior based frame my research question is how do academic and athletic performers of various ability levels differ on academic mindset athletic mindset personal growth initiative and academic social and everyday experiences and the appropriate analysis for this research question is the two factor multimedia and of merits and the two-factor manova can help us examine differences between groups based on several dependent variables so as a visual I want to understand differences and responses to these six parametric dependent variables based on how student-athletes are classified in this performance matrix we want to we have two continuous variables academic performance and athletic performance in terms of how we quantify them for the study they’ll be turned into locking variables so that our student-athletes can fit into one of these four categories high academic high athletic performance low academic high athletic performance low academic low athletic high academic performance and low academic low athletic performance my expectations in trade into this study are that student-athletes who have higher performances will also have a growth mindset towards their academic and athletic abilities they’ll have a growth they’ll have higher levels of personal growth initiative and they’ll have higher number of experiences getting into my sample I am looking at n-c-double-a division 1 FBS student athletes so FBS football subdivision they’re institutions that participate in bowl games in this particular population is identified because this is the highest level of collegiate sport in higher education and so going back to those pressures and expectations this group certainly feels that this is also the group that I intend to work within a profession setting my goal is to have a hundred participants from six different institutions which is in overshot of what they actually need but this will help ensure that we get the data that we need for this for take the next study I selected six different institutions three from the power five conference and three from the group of five conference the power five conference is your elite conferences that have that athletic powers and resources such as the SEC the ACC Big Ten the big 12 and the pac-12 and then three institutions from the B group of five conferences including the Mountain West Conference and the purpose of selecting from both conferences is that I want this study to be generalizable and representative when the n-c-double-a imposes policy or scholarships or resources programs they address the Division one zou now the population as a whole and so that’s also what this study intends to accomplish the sampling method I’ll use is nonprobability convenient sampling from these specific regions and this was intentional because I’m selecting schools where one I have a previous established relationship with the athletic administrators at that institution and/or to those athletic administrators are actively involved and engaged in research benefitting student athletes academically and personally participants for this study are juniors seniors of postgraduates this was intentional as well because performance is really solidified in these later years for example try to quantify a freshman student athletes performance going into this fall I most likely wouldn’t have a cumulative GPA for them unless they took summer school and if they’re a spring sport they haven’t competed yet additionally it would be unfair to try to compare the experiences for example of juniors that they experienced as a freshman because freshmen simply haven’t had the same opportunities post graduates are included because a lot of student athletes redshirt and so one of them finish their bathrooms degree but still have a year or potentially two years of eligibility and so wanted to include this population as well as far as my data collection process I need to start at the top with athletic directors and associate athletic directors of academic units and obtain consent to use their student athletes as participants in my study now once consent is granted I would work with leaders and coaches of the meetings that occur at the beginning of the semester whether they be compliance related or academic related I can even ask the life skills professionals to implement the survey as a part of their curriculum at the beginning of the semester student athletes would need to have access to a computer in order to access a video recording of me explaining the study and my backgrounds trying to sell them and let them know that this is really actively participating in some community service which all student athletes gather on their particular campuses there’s also competitions among different schools based on community service and I believe that by participating in my study they are contributing to the potential knowledge now and the future as far as how we can affect student athletes and from there if they don’t access the video recording they’re also getting transcript that they can read but they’ll open the link to the informed consent and if they consent we’ll have access to the instrument which is the final portion of this presentation I will collect demographic data and this is the demographic data most commonly used by the n-c-double-a in their studies academic performance will be measured the cumulative GPA as mentioned the most common in our graduate evaluator and this also represents for example we don’t need to ask about scholarships because scholarships depend on human type GPA so by having cumulative GPA we know a lot about performance we’ll take the scores and split them into three parts and the upper part will be considered high performance the lower part will be considered low performance and it won’t use the middle data athletic performance is measured a little bit differently I’ve taken the five most commonly used questions in the literature postseason potential scholarships playing time and athletic awards and I put a survey together embedded first by dr. LOH and dr. Guatemala then I’ve identified twelve other scholars in addition to dr. Liu and dr. Baden OE to help me create this instrument and so these scholars will receive the survey and they’ll be able to rate each question based on importance and then also provide feedback on the different items after the first round comes back I’ll create a new survey and then I’ll send out the second draft receive additional feedback and then from there I’ll have considered the survey vetted and that would be with the instrument use to quantify athletic performance personal academic and athletic mindset are each measured on a tie on scales on a six-point Likert scale for the eight items are over scored in order to obtain meaty score and student-athletes fall across this spectrum of the growth in fixed mindset now if possible we want to use the middle data because dr. Dweck consider these consider Z’s believes to be ambiguous we didn’t have reliability information on this particular instrument now there was a lot of reliability information on the three and six item instruments using the k-12 setting but not for this particular instrument that’s intended for adults and so dr. Cornell and I ran a study in the fall of 2015 with a hundred student athletes and we were able to obtain sufficient reliability evidence and we saw that student athletes buried and their growth in fixed mindset also helping us understand this would be a viable construct for my study can I just ask a question on there so what you’re saying is that the pilot study confirmed the notion of just the extreme values rather than the middle area is that what you’re saying there that is actually from her data in k-12 right and then you did the pilot yes and the pilot gave you reliability is on the constructs but did did it also confirm that you don’t use the middle ground – or did you not look at it okay I was just curious what we were really most interested in was making sure that that student athletes from a sample we had access to would fall across that range right so that we wouldn’t end up you know she’s doing her dissertation and finds out that none will have a growth mindset right right traffic – and she found them all across the range so that mocha that made us feel a little bit more confident than going forward she hopefully wouldn’t end up in a situation where you didn’t have enough subjects to fill the cells design okay that makes sense so you’re not going to use the middle ground like her like the previous caller impossible okay I was just curious yeah yeah it’s not a criticism it’s a comment yeah yeah sure the personal growth initiative is a 16 item instrument measure on a six point Likert scale with these four different categories of questions their scores are obtained for each sub scale and then I average the four subscales to obtain a score that helps us understand differences between low and high personal growth initiative and this particular instrument has also demonstrated with ability and reliability evidence and then finally the student experiences inventory is a 39 item instrument that has three different categories quantifying academic social and everyday experiences the songs are obtained from each of the sub scales and divided by the number of items multiplied by ten to obtain a score between 10 and 40 which helps us understand differences and experiences between our participants this instrument also has predictive validity and reliability evidence so in total we have 78 questions plus the athletic performance items that will be added once the scholars have vetted my survey which will be anywhere from five to eight who potentially be less if items are omitted I’ve asked half a dozen students to fill out this particular survey is it differed from the pilot survey that we did and it took on average nine point seven five minutes so just under ten minutes I would say we could allow for fifteen minutes but it should be able to be completed in ten minutes and I also was able to find out that it is permissible to enter student athletes in for example a raffle if they participate in the site which could increase participation to potentially win for example zone game part this concludes the formal presentation and this time I’d like to take questions

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